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I/O

See I/O example

cout

Standard C++ output device (default: console).

1cout << "Some text" << endl;


cin

Standard C++ input device (default: keyboard).

1cin >> var;


endl

End of line.

1cout << "Some text" << endl;


ifstream

Open a file in read mode.

1ifstream file("file.txt");


Note

A file is closed at the end of a block.

ofstream

Open a file in write mode.

1ofstream file("file.txt");


Note

A file is closed at the end of a block.

append

Append data to an existing file.

1ofstream file("file.txt", append);


binary

Write a file in binary.

1ofstream file("file.btxt", binary);


seekg

Set the file position.

1file.seekg(Pos);


tellg

Get the file position.

1int Pos = file.tellg();


flush

Flush the buffer of the file.

1file.flush


getline

Get the current line.

1string s;
2getline(file, s);


Output format

In the descriptions below, f is an output stream, for example cout or a ofstream.

All this methods, excepted the first, return a stream, so they can be chained:

1cout.scientific.showpos << 3 << endl;


precision

Set the number of digits printed to the right of the decimal point. This applies to all subsequent floating point numbers written to that output stream. However, this won’t make floating-point “integers” print with a decimal point. It’s necessary to use fixed for that effect.

1int np = f.precision(n)


scientific

Formats floating-point numbers in scientific notation

1f.scientific


fixed

Used fixed point notation for floating-point numbers. Opposite of scientific.

1f.fixed


showbase

Converts insertions to an external form that can be read according to the C++ lexical conventions for integral constants. By default, showbase is not set.

1f.showbase


noshowbase

Unset showbase flags.

1f.noshowbase


showpos

Inserts a plus sign (+) into a decimal conversion of a positive integral value.

1f.showpos


noshowpos

Unset showpos flags.

1f.noshowpos


default

Reset all the previous flags to the default expect precision.

1f.default


setw

Behaves as if member width were called with n as argument on the stream on which it is inserted as a manipulator (it can be inserted on output streams).

1f.setw(n)

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